Cabbage Farming is easier than you thought. It is the complete step by step guide on the modern cabbage cultivation method.
Cabbage is a cool-weather vegetable that can be grown in most parts of the world. If you’re interested in starting your own cabbage farming business, this guide will teach you everything you need to know. I have tried to explain the growing process, from choosing a variety to harvesting.
Here is the overview of cabbage farming.
- Growing cabbage seedling indoors is common practice for cabbage growers. Usually, it takes between 18 and 38 days from seed to transplant.
- In the next step, the seedlings are transplanted into a fertile, well-plowed field that hasn’t been weeded.
- To ensure proper spacing and aeration, seedlings are planted in rows.
- Drip irrigation is normally used to water plants, and fertigation is used to fertilize them through water-soluble fertilizer injections.
- After transplanting, most cabbage varieties are ready to harvest 75 to 88 days later. Crops may be harvested by a mechanical harvester or by a manual harvester.
Here we describe the core things you need to know before or after starting a cabbage farm. Then, check the post to find more information about growing cabbage.
How to Start Cabbage Farming (Step by Step Guide)
A cabbage can grow 0.5-4 kilograms. Before planting cabbage farming, Learn the basics of the cabbage cultivation process step-by-step.
The first step will be choosing the best varieties in your locality. Check the local vegetable market and query the demand. This will help you to determine which types to grow in your field.
Soil and the weather play a huge role which directly dominate the outcome. Caring for plants is always a hard job. But learning the tricks can save you time and hard labor. Also, this is a good practice to learn the latest technology regarding anything you do.
If you want to grow cabbages organically, my suggestion will be to read this also: How to start organic vegetable farming for beginners.
As like another farming method cabbage is also vulnerable to pests and diseases. Dig into pests and disease control to learn about them.
As a beginner, I found myself in a deep ocean when I let myself when choosing the species for my garden.
1. Choosing Cabbage Varieties to Grow
There are surpassing types of cabbages like January king, Choy sum, Napa, Portugal, Pacifica, Lennox, Savoy ace, Huron & Earl Jersey Wakefield, Tropica Cross, SuperCross, Santa, Oxylus, Red Delight, Red Acre, Murdoch, Drum Head, etc. Different cabbages have various qualities based on several conditions like:
- Red & Chinese Cabbage: Planted for fall harvest including “Ruby Perfection & Lei-Choy.
- Golden Acre: Used for quick harvest time. “Primo” and “Stone head” are also used for the purpose.
- Early Jersey Wakefield: This continues splittings.
- Blue Vintage & Cheer: effective against any diseases.
- Murdoc: Delicate syrupy leaves.
- Red Delight & Acre: Early and easy to grow purple varieties.
2. Preparing the Soil for Grow Cabbages
We know that the cabbages are popular for their adaptability to climatic changes and also soils. So firstly the soil needs to be well-drained. As they are greatly adaptive they can be plowed on sandy loam to clay.
- The ph level of the soil for cabbage farming is within 5.5-6.5.
- At least for good results, the ph shouldn’t fall below 4.5 and it shouldn’t span the range of 6.5 cause it provokes the death of the petal boundaries.
- It’s really crucial to keep this measure. But for better results, you can test your soil near agricultural institutes.
3. Growing Seedlings Indoor
A temperature of 77°F (25°C) or thereabouts is ideal for the germination of seeds in 5 to 8 days. You can start seeds indoors 6 to 4 weeks before the last frost in spring or 12 to 10 weeks before the first frost in autumn. This will enable you to harvest winter harvest.
It is most effective to start seeds in individual pots or flats. Use seed starting mix, and make sure the mix is moist (not wet). Plant seeds 14-5 inches (6-8 mm) deep.
Once seedlings reach 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) tall and have 2 to 4 leaves, transplant them into the garden after daytime temperatures reach 50°F (10°C).
4. Check Climatic conditions for Transplanting cabbage Seedlings outdoor
Let’s learn about cabbage farming conditions, whether you want to grow it in a field or in our garden.
- Cool, moist, and humid atmosphere is really appropriate for growing organic cabbages outdoor.
- August-September is the best time for early mature seedlings and for late matures the time is September-October.
- For the temperature of the dry season, the transparency of the flavor gets spoiled. The proper temperature for the process is between 55-60 Fahrenheit.
- Along with the temperature, the humidity needs to be 90%-100%. A warmer environment makes bolt cabbages and later they grow up with a tart flavor.
Cabbage Planting Calendar
But it can also be planted in late winter and early spring at a temperature of 40-degree Fahrenheit. Because the germination procedure starts with this temperature. But some strong seedlings can undergo 20-25 degrees Fahrenheit.
But in the summer season, they can be produced in coastal areas if the temperature is above 80-degree Fahrenheit. These seeds are anti-freeze survivors. Annually, in the horticulture field, every corps need at least 400mm-500mm 0f rainfall.
5. Planting Cabbage Spacing (How Far Apart Do I Need to Plant My Cabbage?)
The spacing of cabbage varieties differs: compact varieties are spaced 30 cm (1ft) apart. Unlike smaller varieties, larger varieties are spaced up to 45cm (18in) from one another. During the spring, plant spring cabbages in rows 30cm (1ft) apart, and thin out at 30cm (1ft) intervals in late February or early March.
To maximize yields and achieve healthy growth, take the following factors into account.
- Rate of seeding: 250-400 grams (9-14 ounces) per hectare
- Plants per hectare: 20000-40000
In modern-day cabbage farming, this is very important. Here some tips for beginners to adopt proper spacing.
Like other plants, the spacing of plants plays an important role in cabbage farming. Proper spacing can bring you greater profitability.
6. Transplanting cabbage seedlings outdoor
The perfect cabbage planting procedure depends on your soil conditions. But the process described below is the best method to cultivate this vegetable commercially.
If you are willing to plant seeds, check the “Climatic conditions for plant cabbage seeds outdoors” topics to read about the sessions and temperature.
- To get delicate cabbage seedlings accustomed to being outdoors, put them outside for a few hours, then longer each day.
- Temperatures consistently above 40 degrees Fahrenheit can cause cabbages to harden off during the day. Exposure to outdoor conditions will aid their adaptation to a changing environment.
- Ensure that the plants can be easily moved and that they are protected from harsh sunlight and high winds.
- You can use an outdoor shelf with a cover, enclosing three sides at first and gradually exposing more as the plants adjust to the weather.
Let’s learn about the universal planting procedure
After the last frost or frost date, the cabbages should be planted out. You can start them in the afternoons as well. But if you are going to plant them outdoors, they can be done in the early morning after the sun’s rays have dried up.
- The seedlings are planted in 4-5 levels. The planting depths should be 1/4-1/2″ and 1-5′ is required for the depths of the roots. Height & width must be between 12-15″ & 24-40″.
- The seed rate for the early variety is 500 grams/hectare and for the late variety is 400 grams/hectare.
- The spacing for early maturity is 45 cm from row to row and 30 cm from plant to plant. On the other hand, for the late bloomers, the row spacing is 60 cm and the plant spacing is 45 cm.
- Growing vegetables like Beans, Celery, Cucumber, Dill, Kale, Lettuce, Onions, Potatoes, Sage, & Spinach, Thyme, Artichoke, Beet, and Bush along with cabbages provide extra benefits. After 25 days of sowing seeds, every row needs to be spaced 18″ apart, and for beds, the measure is 15″. The space between rows of two should be 24-30″.
- However, you may separate the corps into two for greater discretion. One is the early variety and the other is a late variety crop i.e carrots, onions, etc. But some of the vegetables require the same value and nutrients as cabbages but they can’t be grown beside them.
- Due to heavy feedings, frequent nutrients, and pests and diseases, the crop cannot be nourished. These vegetables are strawberries, cauliflower, broccoli, and tomatoes.
Tools and Equipment for Growing Cabbages
- Sharp Knife.
- Fish Emulsion.
- Garden Hoe.
- Organic Mulch.
- Organic Soil Amendments.
- Water-Soluble Fertilizer.
Care for Organic Cabbage Growing Stages
This is an important topic. When we started to write a guide for cabbage farming the first thing we completed is the caring process. There are several tips and tricks, that can save lots of your time. Because this is where farmers feel helpless. Feel free to ask any questions in the comment box below.
The biggest preservation to looking after the cabbages are watering. It is the hardcore ingredient to keep the plants combined.
- Special attention needs to be drawn to the land in autumn & winter.
- On the other hand, dry out causes plant bolting. It also keeps them from drying out and exterminates the bitter flavors of the cabbages.
- It needs 11/2 inches of rain per week but if the climate condition of your region isn’t that rainy you’ve to keep it hydrated by watering yourself.
- Approximately, 10 liters of water is necessary per meter square of land. Soaker hose, jugs, the regular hose can be used for the purpose.
- The nurturing land has to be waterlogged weekly. The pressure shouldn’t be too strong so the soil gets decayed.
- You need to be sensible while watering the root & upper levels. Cause the roots to retain the moistures of the soil and the upper levels reassure the pests & diseases but balancing the measure it can be solved.
- Yellow leaves must be removed that are damaged by pests & insects.
- Like any other vegetable, it doesn’t do well in mushy soil for a long period. If for any reason the soil turns out very dry you’ll have to dig 3 inches down and water it if the soil shifts to moisture then you’re in a good shape.
As we know that the cabbages are the vast consumers of water and other factors they need to be side-dressed with composts, potassium, & nitrogen to keep the soil rich. After developing new leaves 20-20-20 can be scattered. It is prohibited to start fertilization after 4-5 weeks later when the plants will be growing solidly and the germination procedure is over.
Mechanism Of Irrigation
The cabbage is an adaptive vegetable but can’t endure dehydration. In the winter, the procedure is done by interim irrigation and that requires 8-10 days. But the dry season has to be persistent and constant. A limited amount of water should be kept on the furrows to rehydrate the corps in the dry season. An exceptional drainage system needs to be made for rainfall conditions. Drizzle irrigation needs to be made for continents with less rain.
Weed controlling tips
Weeds make the land useless junk. They mostly damage the roots of the cabbages. The first elimination time for the weeds is after 2-3 months when there half-grown. the process is done by dredging. The drilling method needs to be precise so the plants don’t get bruised. Along with this hoeing herbicides also helps to annihilate the weeds. And they are Alachlor & Metolachlor.
But I am afraid to say, Beginner farmers, do not realize the weeding procedure completely. Hope! you do not make mistakes. Note this instead.
Control the weeds in time, You should keep the cabbage garden clean during that time.
- Control weeds in growing stages.
- you need to perform it before and after fertilization is applied.
- Sometimes on very hot and shining days weeds help to preserve water, but I warn you to be careful.
- In circumstances like this only remove the unwanted plants near the roots. Although I will suggest you for using mulch or a shade. Mulch is beneficial not only to help your cabbage with water but also to protect them from the extreme sunlight in your garden.
Alachlor is not as strong or, adequate as Metolachlor. But it helps to oversight the spectrum of the weeds. you’ve to memorize that this herbicide can’t slightly be overused.
It helps with the depressed conditions of the plants.
Fertilizer Requirements for Growing Healthy Cabbage
As they are heavy feeders they also prescribe highly effective fertilization like potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, composts, and urea instead of ammonium sulfate for acidic soils.
The fertilization applying limit for cabbage farming is 11/2 pounds per 100 square feet. Organic farmers will apply Organic fertilizers after 20-30 days of planting if requires. Try to avoid fertilizers produced with human excreta.
For only conventional farmers, this will apply. Though it is against organic farming and bad for health. We suggest testing the soil and providing the needed vitamins to the soil. For ensuring faster and bigger vegetables use nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous.
- 12-12-12 or, 10-10-10 is the fertilizer that obligates well with cabbages.
- These numbers are sealed in the containing process of the fertilizer which represents how many organic ingredients the corps needs.
- For example, every cabbage land requires 200-250 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare.
- Utilization needs to be strengthened with phosphorus and potassium. The leftovers can be side-dressed after a week or 3 after the transplanting. Boron & Molybdenum can be sprayed during this term.
Common Pests & Diseases
While growing the cabbages the corps faces many kinds of diseases & pests. These diseases & pests reduce their color, essence, weight, quality, and advancement of them.
The pests that cause inflict to the corps are Cabbage worms, Cabbage loopers, Aphids, Cabbage root maggots, Flea beetles, Cutworms, Nematodes, Bagrada Bug, and American Bollworms.
The diseases that spoil the production are Blackleg, Club-root, Dumping Off, Downy Mildew, Leaf spot/Ring spot/Target spot, Powdery Mildew, White Blister, White Mould, White leaf spot, Wire Stem, etc. But the primary diseases are caused by Sclerotinia & Botrytis.
These catastrophic components cause devastation to the stems, wilts, heads, seedlings, flowers, and even an entire plan. But uttermost of the diseases and pest causes damage to the leaf and root.
Control: Chemical components like Carbaryl, Spinosad, Neem oil extracts, Permethrin, and insecticidal soaps. But some of the diseases and pest attacks may not have a cure. In this regard, you can take consultation with your near governmental agriculture institutes.
The cabbages should be harvested when the heads are substantial and ripened. It takes around 71-88 days. The best way of harvesting this crop is to compress it with your own hand if you feel the strong & firmness of the head then your cabbage is ready to harvest.
Sometimes some adult looks great, healthy, & ripened but inside it’s soft and unfit to be harvested. So don’t judge the visualization cause it can be tricky to examine every single plant with your own hand.
Early produced cabbages’ weight varies from 1-3 pounds. Firstly you need to cut the stem underneath the head with a sharp knife and detach the head from the plant but leave the leaves and other parts on the ground. A week later those leaves and other parts will form as a little cabbage maybe it will be small but it has a great flavor.
Storing Tips and Techniques
The storage system is one of the most important procedures in the field of cabbage farming. If the inhalation of them goes well the product loses its nature but a proper storage system slows down the respiration. The temperature of the storage system needs to be 0 degrees or, 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Moreover, it has to be at least 90% or, high cause if the humidity level is less than 80% them will lose its precipitation. Refrigeration is the best way to handle the humidity of the cabbage. It can be stored in the fridge for 2 weeks by only packaging it with plastic.
Furthermore, It needs to be dried out before the storage system. However, in the tuber cellar position, the cabbage can be refrigerated for nearly 3 months. They shouldn’t be stored with fruits particularly with Apple even if the proportion of temperature & the humidity level is the same cause they exhale ethylene which discolors the cabbage.
Finally, If you are a beginner at cabbage farming you may face difficulties. Remember we are here! Bookmark us! If needed place a comment below.
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